河南农业科学 ›› 2023, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (10): 72-81.DOI: 10.15933/j.cnki.1004-3268.2023.10.008

• 农业资源与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

污染石灰性土壤不同品种小麦籽粒对重金属的积累特征

王秋红1,时倩茹2,彭爱华3,商艳萍4,孙发伟5,梁小东2,杨素勤2,张彪2   

  1. (1.郑州市农村能源环境保护站,河南 郑州 450006;2.河南农业大学资源与环境学院,河南 郑州 450046;3.驻马店市农村能源环境保护站,河南 驻马店 463000;4.济源市种子管理站,河南 济源 459000;5.开封市农村能源环境保护工作站,河南 开封 475000)
  • 收稿日期:2023-06-13 出版日期:2023-10-15 发布日期:2023-11-08
  • 通讯作者: 孙发伟(1977-),男,河南开封人,高级农艺师,主要从事农田土壤重金属污染修复工作。E-mail:kfnyz@sina.com
  • 作者简介:王秋红(1966-),女,山东沂南人,高级工程师,主要从事农业环境保护工作。E-mail:294737416@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571320);河南省科技攻关计划项目(212102110394)

Accumulation Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Grains of Different Wheat Varieties in Contaminated Calcareous Soil

WANG Qiuhong1,SHI Qianru2,PENG Aihua3,SHANG Yanping4,SUN Fawei5,LIANG Xiaodong2,YANG Suqin2,ZHANG Biao2   

  1. (1.Zhengzhou Rural Energy and Environmental Protection Station,Zhengzhou 450006,China;2.School of Resources and Environment,Henan Agricultural University,Zhengzhou 450046,China;3.Zhumadian Rural Energy Environmental Protection Station,Zhumadian 463000,China;4.Jiyuan Seed Management Station,Jiyuan 459000,China;5.Kaifeng Rural Energy and Environmental Protection Workstation,Kaifeng 475000,China)
  • Received:2023-06-13 Published:2023-10-15 Online:2023-11-08

摘要: 为给污染土壤安全生产筛选适宜小麦品种,以17种常见小麦品种为供试材料,在豫北某污染石灰性土壤种植,比较各品种小麦籽粒中重金属镉(Cd)、铅(Pb)、铁(Fe)、锰(Mn)、铜(Cu)、锌(Zn)元素的积累水平,并分析其根际土壤重金属有效态含量及其与籽粒元素含量的相关性。结果表明,试验地土壤Cd 含量为2.17 mg/kg,依据《土壤环境质量农用地土壤污染风险管控标准(试行)》(GB 15618—2018),试验地属于安全利用类土壤。不同小麦品种籽粒Cd含量差异明显,其中,小麦品种北10的籽粒Cd含量最低(0.12 mg/kg),其次是偃科048,偃展4110籽粒Cd含量最高。试验地各小麦品种籽粒Cd含量均超出《食品安全国家标准食品中污染物限量》(GB 2762—2017)中的限量值(0.10 mg/kg)。就籽粒Pb含量而言,品种间无明显差异,且均低于《食品安全国家标准食品中污染物限量》(GB 2762—2017)限量值(0.20 mg/kg)。土壤有效态Cd含量占全Cd含量的比值较高,为46%。土壤有效态Cd含量与籽粒Cd含量之间呈极显著正相关关系。Fe、Zn是Cd的拮抗元素,本研究所选小麦品种中偃科048、北10、百农4199、西农979籽粒中Fe、Zn总量与Cd含量比值较高,因此,推荐其作为优先品种选用并配合土壤调理措施以实现安全生产。

关键词: 小麦, 石灰性土壤, 重金属, 微量元素, 安全生产

Abstract: In order to screen suitable wheat varieties for safe production in polluted soil,17 common wheat varieties were selected as test materials and cultivated in polluted calcareous soil in northern Henan Province. The accumulation status of heavy metals cadmium(Cd),lead(Pb),iron(Fe),manganese(Mn),copper(Cu)and zinc(Zn)in grains were compared,and available heavy metal content in the rhizosphere soil of each variety as well as its correlation with the elemental content of grains were analyzed.The results showed that the Cd content in the soil in the experimental site was 2.17 mg/kg,which belonged to safe utilization soil according to Soil Environmental QualityRisk Control Standard for Soil Contamination of Agricultural Land(GB 15618—2018).There were significant differences in grain Cd content among different wheat varieties,B10 had the lowest Cd content(0.12 mg/kg),followed by YK048,and the grain Cd content of YZ4110 was the highest. Cd content in the grains of various wheat varieties all exceeded the limit value(0.10 mg/kg) in National Food Safety StandardsLimits for Pollutants in Food(GB 2762—2017).In terms of Pb content in grains,there was no significant difference among varieties,and all of them were lower than the limit value(0.20 mg/kg)in National Food Safety StandardsLimits for Pollutants in Food(GB 2762—2017). It was found that the ratio of available Cd to total Cd in the experimental site was relatively higher,reaching 46%. There was a extremely significant positive correlation between soil available Cd content and grain Cd content. Fe and Zn are antagonistic elements to Cd,amony the wheat varieties selected in this study,the ratio of total content of Fe and Zn to Cd content in the grains of Y048,B10,B4199 and X979 was higher. Therefore,they should be recommended as priority varieties,and soil control measures should be taken to achieve safe production.

Key words: Wheat, Calcareous soil, Heavy metals, Microelement, Safe production

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